Cellular Foundations of Health and Disease is a four-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the role of cells within the body. Cellular biochemistry, anatomical structure, and physiological function are introduced and then expanded, emphasizing the role of cells as the basic building blocks in a hierarchal system that increases in complexity as cells form tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism. Cellular hormonal and neuronal control mechanisms are described at the biochemical, histological, and physiological levels. The principle of homeostasis is defined at the level of cell, tissues, organs, and at whole body level, with signals arising from the body’s four tissue types used as examples of the importance of this process in the control of body function. The autonomic nervous system is described in detail and then employed as the starting point for teaching of the foundations of human pharmacology. Pharmacological principles outlined include pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics (personalized medicine), and toxicity. The use of drugs for the treatment of disease is introduced with an overview of how clinical laboratory methodology can be employed to provide scientific data for the diagnosis, evaluation, and monitoring of microbial disease and its pharmacological treatment. The course introduces the basic biology of medically relevant microbes, the basic principles of infectious disease, the underlying mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, the immunologic basis of disease etiology and pathology, and vaccination and immunotherapy. The course provides an introduction to pathology, and deepens the introduction to anatomy and genetics. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.